Unit Of Production Depreciation


Units of Production Depreciation

Common in manufacturing, the units of production rate is calculated by dividing the equipment’s cost by its expected lifetime production. Multiplying this rate by the asset’s output for the year gives you the depreciation expense for that year. The first variable to compute is the “depreciable cost.” Depreciable cost is the original cost of the asset minus the salvage value. The next variable to compute is “depreciation per unit.” This is calculated by dividing the depreciable cost by the total units expected to be produced by the asset. The third variable to calculate is the actual “depreciation expense,” which is recorded on the income statement. The units of production depreciation method is more cumbersome to calculate than most of the other depreciation methods. You have to adjust the calculation from one period to the next based on the asset’s usage, meaning you can’t set up an automatically posting depreciation entry in your accounting software.

Units of Production Depreciation

To calculate units of production depreciation, you need to divide the cost of the asset―less its salvage value―by the total units you expect the asset to produce over its useful life. Then, you’ll multiply this rate by the actual units produced during the year. To calculate the depreciation cost per unit of production, the depreciable value is divided by the number of units expected to be produced by the asset during its useful life.

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The Unit of Production Method is a depreciation method that measures the depreciation of an asset based on its usage and not just passage of time. When the unit of production method is used to gauge depreciation of an asset, the useful life of the asset is related to its usage over time, in terms of the units it produces for the period it was in use. Using this method, the actual usage of an item counts more than the passage of time. If the asset is rarely used, its Units of Production Depreciation depreciation will be lesser and an asset will have greater depreciation for years when it is heavily used. This depreciation method helps you calculate how to reduce the value of a fixed asset in your business based on the number of units it produces in a given period of time. To calculate the unit production rate, you must know the original cost of the asset as well as its expected salvage value and how many units the asset is expected to produce in its lifetime.

Units of Production Depreciation

Under the units of production method, the amount of depreciation charged to expense varies in direct proportion to the amount of asset usage. Thus, a business may charge more depreciation in periods when there is more asset usage, and less depreciation in periods when there is less usage. It is the most accurate method for charging depreciation, since this method is linked to the actual wear and tear on assets. However, it also requires that someone track asset usage, which means that its use is generally limited to more expensive assets. Also, you need to be able to estimate total usage over the life of the asset in order to derive the amount of depreciation to recognize in each accounting period.

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It shouldn’t be used for assets not directly used in the manufacturing of goods and services. An example of such an asset is a plant and machinery, which lose their value and efficiency as we used them. This method of depreciation is not usable in several scenarios (already discussed under ‘When and When Not to Use’). This method also more accurately relates to the wear and tear of the asset.

  • In a mine, the asset cost is the value of the minerals that are extracted.
  • Unlike the usual depreciation method, this method does not give importance to the age of the asset.
  • Similarly, in the year when the productivity is low, the depreciation charge in that year will be low.
  • For some assets, the only logical way to measure depreciation is by the quantity of the resources you expect to extract from the assets.
  • In the example shown, there is an asset with an initial cost of $20,000 and a salvage value of $4,000.
  • This calculator is for units of production method of depreciation of an asset or, the amount of depreciation for each unit and period.

For example, there are multiple assets, and each asset produces different units in a particular year. Keeping track of each asset is very difficult, primarily when goods are produced in multiple processes. Still, in this method, depreciation can not be charged when a machine is idle in the factory, due to which the asset’s true value can not be derived. We will segregate the unit of production depreciation formula into two parts to understand it in a better way.

Units Of Production Method: Definition

For instance, if an asset K produces 50 units and the same asset P produces 30 units, then K will depreciate more than P because it produced more units. The depreciation formula is used to calculate the depreciation of a business’s fixed assets. This is the total units the asset is expected to produce over its life. This method calculates the depreciation expense on an asset considering the actual usage of the asset, which makes it the most accurate metric for charging depreciation. Units of production depreciation allow businesses to charge more depreciation during the periods when there is more asset usage and vice-versa. In units of production method, higher depreciation is charged when their is higher activity and less is charged when there is low level of operation.

Units of Production Depreciation

Compared to other depreciation methods, double-declining-balance depreciation results in a larger amount expensed in the earlier years as opposed to the later years of an asset’s useful life. The method reflects the fact that assets are typically more productive in their early years than in their later years – also, the practical fact that any asset loses more of its value in the first few years of its use. With the double-declining-balance method, the depreciation factor is 2x that of the straight-line expense method.

How Do You Calculate Depreciation Depreciation?

If you are running a business, you are likely using assets to produce goods that you sell on a regular basis. Every asset has its useful life and they lose a part of their value for each unit of goods they produce. The concept of these assets losing their value, can be defined by a single word ‘Depreciation’ and the method of calculating the ratio of depreciation respective to each unit is known as units of production depreciation.

  • The production run method is also known as units of production method or units of output method.
  • Because, in the case of plants and machinery, the wear and tear will depend on their usage.
  • You can change the method from a calculated, table, or flat-rate method to a production method only in the period you add the asset.
  • This is the basic form of depreciation where the value of the asset depreciates by a fixed amount for a given period of the Asset’s lifetime.
  • When the unit of production method is used to gauge depreciation of an asset, the useful life of the asset is related to its usage over time, in terms of the units it produces for the period it was in use.
  • She has worked for JPMorganChase, SunTrust Investment Bank, Intel Corporation and Harvard University.

And you can’t use units of production depreciation for tax purposes. Since the units of production depreciation method uses the actual production levels of an asset to record deprecation expense, depreciation expenses can vary from year to year.


The estimated scrap value is Rs. 100,000 and total estimated life is 90,000 kilometer . This method is basically used to calculate the depreciation of vehicles according to their covered distances. Any information obtained from Users of this Website at the time of any communication with us (the “Company”) or otherwise is stored by the Company.

This means the number of units manufactured by the company in the period for which the depreciation is being calculated. The company will produce more only when it expects the demand to be more. And this will mean that the total sales volume and thus the revenue for the period will be more. Hence, to match with the revenues, the depreciation should be more in the year in which sales are high.

The main advantage of this method is that it’s easy to use and understand. Another advantage, as stated earlier, is that it provides a good matching of expenses and revenues for those assets for which use is an important factor in Depreciation. Consider a situation in which it is economically feasible for a company to keep records relating to the quantity of output produced from an asset. Depreciation is calculated by dividing the production for the period by the capacity and multiplying by the recoverable cost. And you also know a properly maintained WidgetMaker 3000 is expected to produce 90,000 Widgets during its lifetime. With sales taxes, delivery fees, and setup fees, the total of your WidgetMaker 3000 purchase comes to $11,500.


And depreciation charge prospectively over the useful life of an asset. As we can see, the depreciation amount is increasing due to an increase in the production unit. Danielle Bauter is a writer for the Accounting division of Fit Small Business. She has owned Check Yourself, a bookkeeping and payroll service that specializes in small business, for over twenty years.

  • Units of production depreciation is used primarily for manufacturing equipment, although it can also be used to calculate the depletion of natural resources.
  • Because in both the cases depreciation was charged at a fixed price.
  • The depreciation per unit is the depreciable cost divided by the number of units the equipment is expected to produce.
  • Generally, assets such as buildings, equipment, furniture, motor vehicles, and other tangible fixed assets are depreciated.
  • A higher expense is incurred in the early years and a lower expense in the latter years of the asset’s useful life.

Depreciation MethodDepreciation is a systematic allocation method used to account for the costs of any physical or tangible asset throughout its useful life. Its value indicates how much of an asset’s worth has been utilized. Depreciation enables companies to generate revenue from their assets while only charging a fraction of the cost of the asset in use each year.

SAP documentation regarding base method with base method Unit-of-production is explained in details in ‘Unit-of-Production Method of Depreciation ’. However, here you can find an asset example, where depreciation calculation is illustrated. The second step involves estimating the salvage value and then subtracting it from the original cost of the asset in order to find out the net depreciable cost.

In reality, however, assets do depreciate due to other factors including inadequacy, obsolescence, efflux of time etc. All of these factors are not considered by units of production depreciation. Enter or upload units of production assets with accumulated depreciation. The cost accountants at West believe thesalvage valueof the machine is $20,000 and the machine will produce 20,000 units during its useful life.

How Is The Depreciation Calculation To Periods 01 To 05?

Rather, such businesses should use straight-line depreciation or similar methods of depreciation. The acquisition cost of the truck is 40,000 https://www.bookstime.com/ and its residual value is 5,000. If on year 1 the truck traveled 30,000 km its accumulated depreciation for year 1 would be of $5,250.

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